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I got lot of Out of Print and Rare books in my store and still adding lot of books. More Information. Shipping Terms: Orders usually ship within 1 business days. Payment Methods accepted by seller PayPal. Add to Wants. Mapping the global onto the local Using the low carbon diet frame, campaigners and communicators initiated a way of communicating about climate change that was neither too highbrow nor too alarmist. An ice sheet the size of Rhode Island melts into the sea off Antarctica. A blizzard of disease carrying insects reaches high-elevation cities for the first time. Whole islands in the Pacific are ready to disappear beneath the waves.
But, while there is much to be done, an important part of the solution to global warming may be right in your kitchen. The issue of clean and secure energy, in particular, stimulated some debate framed in terms of a low carbon diet, a diet that makes a political body, rather than a human body, healthier and stronger. Table 1. Reduce dishwasher use by responsible for 18 percent of Choose a car with better one load a week. Replace and clean air Sourcing all meat and poultry from Run full loads in the conditioning filters.
Sourcing nearly all fruits and vegetables from North America, using seasonal local produce as a first preference [. Serving only domestic bottled water and reducing waste from plastic bottles [. Low carbon diet: Meaning 1 : reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This number is now being disputed March Low carbon diet: Meaning 2 : reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Meaning 1 of low carbon diet seems to be partly based on the following meta- phorical mappings between dieting and carbon emissions reduction, as found in the newspaper corpus, but, as we shall see in Section 5, things are actually more complicated.
Again, when dissecting these mappings in terms of blending, things turn out to be more complicated, as we shall see. Mappings for low carbon diet 2. The mixing of literal and metaphorical mappings contin- ued in debates about the benefits of a low carbon diet in the secondary sense. Here, one can observe a reversal of meaning or mapping.
A low carbon diet is no longer used to make people see climate change in a different way and re- duce carbon emissions, but, conversely, using a low carbon diet to reduce car- bon emissions is used to see food in a different way.
ISBN 13: 9780963032720
Whereas the compound was used before to make abstract bodies households, nations healthier, it is now used to make physical bodies healthier. A bonus of this program is how healthful the low carbon diet turns out to be. It closely matches many recommendations doctors and nutritionists are already making: fewer processed foods and more whole vegetables and grains.
The Low carbon diet could prompt a significant shift in the lens through which Ameri- cans view food choices. Mapping the local onto the national or state level The advantages of a low carbon diet are mostly discussed at community level, as we have seen. However, more federal and state initiatives, especially regard- ing fuel and energy consumption, are also framed by using this phrase, that is to say, California as a whole is said to engage in a low carbon diet and the United States as a whole are also invited to join.
It Starts at Home
These structure the contextual use of low carbon diet. The later low carbon diet blend, we argue below, derived from the earlier blend, of which it is an extension. The grounding input relates to the real-world problem that the blend is an attempt to address. The form diet is also projected from the Dieting frame, we argue. Integration network 1 In this integration network, low carbon diet relates to individual activity espe- cially in and around the household in order to reduce carbon emissions see advice given in the first two columns of Table 1 above.
It consists of a generic space, an input space relating to carbon emissions management, and multiple input spaces relating to household energy husbandry corresponding to pre- sumably many millions of households, both in the USA and across the world. Of course, reducing household energy consump- tion does not directly reduce carbon emissions: it is the production of electric- ity, in power-stations, for instance, by burning fossil fuels, that produces carbon dioxide.
A household, in contrast, consumes, rather than produces electricity. Nevertheless, the blend provides a mechanism for integrating highly diffuse cause-effect chains relating to carbon dioxide production and hence carbon emissions, and household energy management, in order to reduce the complex- ity involved in climate change and, specifically, the ways of tackling this prob- lem to human scale.
In the blend, mitigating the effects of climate change is boiled down to sav- ing energy made in an individual household. This is achieved by virtue of i the blend providing a venue for in- ferential work, and ii the blend remaining connected to the inputs that gave rise to it, and in particular the individual household inputs. Through a process termed backward projection Fauconnier and Turner , the individual reader infers that change s in household energy consumption the cause will directly result in a reduction in carbon emissions, thereby helping to save the planet the effect.
The consequence is that the compound, low carbon diet, specifically relates to a means of mitigating carbon emissions low carbon , centred around an individual-level reduction in consumption diet that specifically relates to reducing energy consumption in the individual household the focus input. We discuss below each of these points. Each of the input spaces in Figure 2 is structured by a frame. The frame that structures input 1 relates to Carbon Emissions Management.
In addition, the roles in a frame typically have specific values. In addition, the frame also includes, at the very least, a salient Cause-effect struc- tural relation that holds between the role s for Actions and the role for Goal. That is, the Actions cause lead to Goal effect. In addition, each of these roles, and the Cause-effect structural relation, are filled by specific sorts of values. Figure 2. Low carbon diet integration network. These might in- clude, for instance, global initiatives to reduce carbon emissions e. Frame components for the carbon emissions management frame Structural properties of the frame Frame elements roles and structural invariant values Harmful entity Carbon dioxide Agent s Car manufacturers, factories, governments, industrialists, politicians, consumers, scientists, etc.
Aim Sustainable ecosystems Goal Low carbon emissions Cause-effect relation: Actions Reduction in waste gases causes low carbon emissions involved cause Goal role for Aim is filled by the value: sustainable ecosystems; while the role for Goal is filled by the value: low carbon emissions.
Finally, the Cause-effect structural invariant that relates the roles Actions with Goal is filled by the value: reduction in waste gases causes lower carbon emissions. The frame components i. As shown in Figure 2, in addition to input 1, there is a second sort of input: input 2 to input n. These inputs all share common structure, relating to energy husbandry in an individual household. As with input 1, inputs 2-n recruit structure and elements from a frame.
However, in this case, the structure comes from a Household Energy Hus- bandry frame. This frame relates to knowledge concerning the relationships that hold between household energy consumption, a reduction in energy use, and a corresponding reduction in energy bills leading to better household fi- nances. The frame components that structure inputs 2-n are given in Table 5. In the integration network, the input 2-n spaces share commonalities at the level of frame properties i.
In other words, in- puts 2-n are populated by the same type of frame properties and elements. In the formation of an integration network, a process of abstraction leads to input spaces being analysed for commonalities. That is, via abstraction, points of similarity are excerpted giving rise to common structure that populates a novel generic space: a mental space that is populated by structure that is common to all the inputs. Table 5. Frame components for household energy husbandry frame Structural properties of the frame Frame elements Entity consumed Energy Agent Individuals and households Affected party Household energy consumption Actions involved Reduction in energy use through more sparing energy consumption of electricity and other types of energy in and around the home Aim Better finances Goal Energy-efficient household Cause-effect relation: Actions Reduction in energy use causes energy-efficient household involved cause Goal Once a generic space is derived, this can be used to identify counterparts across input spaces.
As input spaces 2-n are each structured by a common frame, they give rise to a generic space that can be employed to identify the role-value sets in each as counterparts across all the input spaces 2-n.
One consequence of this is that the input spaces 2-n in fact form a separate integration network. In other words, the integration network in Figure 2 is more complex than presented. Accordingly, we present a revised integration network for input spaces 2-n in Figure 3. As shown, this involves compression across the role-value sets in each of the input spaces 2-n; role-value pairings that are identified as counterparts across input spaces 2-n. In Figure 3, the counterparts signalled by the double-arrowed horizontal lines across input spaces are compressed from many to one in the blend.
Re- call that compression works by reducing the conceptual distance across coun- terparts. In other words, the role-value sets across input spaces e. That is, within the blend, all the role-value sets across the many households, which in practice exhibit variation, become identical. A single household energy husbandry blend. Moreover, this process of compression is repeated for all the other role-value sets across the input spaces, as well as the Cause-effect relations. Following compression from analogy to identity, the role-value sets and Cause-effect relation undergo further compression within the blend, into uniqueness.
Hence, each of the compressed frame components recruited by the inputs 2-n from the frame Household Energy Husbandry, represent a single household in the blend. The purpose, then, of the Household Energy Hus- bandry blend in Figure 3 is to compress many households into a single house- hold. The consequence of this is that the single household blend stands for all the households where energy husbandry is practised.
A more complete version of the network given earlier in Figure 2 is presented in Figure 4. Nevertheless, there are common- alities in terms of frame structural properties. For instance, both input types input 1 and input 2 feature the following frame structural properties: Entity, Agent, Affected party, Actions involved, Aim, Goal, and Cause-effect relation.
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These shared properties are abstracted away from the individual inputs giving rise to a generic space. This serves to identify the structural elements just mentioned as counterparts across the two input spaces. While the frame properties i. That is, in the blend there are single roles for Agent, Affected party, Actions involved and Aim, and a single cause-effect relation.
As a consequence, there is selective projection of values from the input spaces, such that each role, and the structural cause-effect rela- tion, is compressed with a value; the values are recruited in selective fashion from each of the two inputs. This compression is due to an outer-space role- value vital relation one that holds across input spaces being compressed into uniqueness of roles with values in the blend.
For instance, the unique Entity role, in the blend, is compressed with the value Energy, from input 2. Revised low carbon diet integration network. The role for Actions involved is compressed with the value: Reduction in energy use within the household from input 2 , while the role for Aim is filled by the value sus- tainable ecosystems from input 1. Interestingly, in the blend, two Goal roles appear to be projected. By saving the planet we also save money, by reducing household expenses!
In other words, values for both Goals, the Goals in inputs 1 and 2 appear to be projected into the blend, suggesting that two Goal roles are also projected to the blend: reducing carbon emissions goal in input 1 , also saves money goal in input 2. The fact that both Goal roles appear to be projected to the blend may, on the face of it, potentially lead to a clash. As we shall see below, however, the potential clash resulting from pro- jection of frame structure from both inputs is, in fact, avoided in the blend. Before considering this issue in more detail, we first discuss the values that fill the unique Cause-effect relation found in the blend.
In input 1, the Actions involved concern activities directly associated with mitigating and reducing carbon emissions. But this value is not projected to the blend. After all, we have seen that two Goals and two values are projected, one from each input space. We argue that this is determined, crucially, via recruitment of structure from a third input which contains a Dieting frame.
As with frames that structure in- puts 1 and 2, the Dieting frame contains a lot of complex information including knowledge concerning structural properties of the frame, as well as frame ele- ments. The frame also contains the role Action of mini- mising consumption with the value: reduce calorie intake , and the role Goal of reducing harmful waste product with value: reduce fat levels. Frame components for Dieting frame Structural properties of the frame Frame elements Entity reduced Calories Harmful and unwanted by-product Fat Actions to minimising consumption Follow a calorie-controlled diet Goal to avoid harmful by-product Reduce fat levels in the body Cause-effect relation: reducing consumption Consumption of fewer calories causes less fat causes reduction in by-product such that the Actions reducing calories intake causes the Goal the reduction of fat.
The frame components for the Dieting frame are captured in Table 6. It is these properties, we suggest, that provide the Cause-effect relation in the low carbon diet blend with its structure. This relates to the reduction of household energy consumption. We argue that this is selected under guidance from the Cause-effect structure from input 3: the Dieting frame. In the Dieting frame, the Cause-effect relation involves a relation between an entity whose consumption is reduced fulfilled in the blend by the value: reduce energy household consumption , and the effect, namely a reduction in an unwanted and harmful by-product.
Hence, the Goal role selected for is the Goal from input 1, and the value is that of low carbon emissions. Thus, Cause- effect structure in the Dieting frame determines the Cause-effect relation in the blend. Carlsberg and product e. The integration of inputs 1 and 2 gives rise to one interpretation, while integration with the third metonymically structured input gives rise to the second interpretation.
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Hence, it is the double grounding that is responsible for the ambiguity and so the humour associated with a news- paper headline of this sort. The function of the Diet frame in the blend is not to provide the blend with additional values. As we have seen, the values come from input 2 primarily, while the frame ele- ments i. Crucially, however, the Dieting input provides the Cause-effect relation in the blend with key organisational structure.
In effect, it determines which values from inputs 1 and 2 in Figure 4 occupy which roles. And in this sense, the blend is grounded twice: in terms of role-value compres- sion across inputs 1 and 2, and by the recruitment of structure from input 3, which determines how the roles in the Cause-effect relation are filled. We now return to the issue of potential clashes in the blend. As such, they each contain quite dif- ferent Cause-effect structure relations. Moreover, we have seen that both Goal roles, and their values, are projected to the blend: minimising household en- ergy consumption, in the blend, directly reduces carbon emissions, whilst si- multaneously saving money!
As noted earlier, this potentially leads to a clash: in the grounding input, reducing carbon emissions is not normally associated with reduced expenditure. Indeed, reduced expenditure often directly causes an increase in carbon emissions. Yet, in the blend the clash is avoided. This, we argue, is a consequence of pattern completion. By guiding completion of the Cause-effect structure in the blend, structure drawn from the Dieting frames helps obviate a clash.
Hence, both role-value sets for Goal exist simultaneously in the blend. In addition, it serves the crucial function of obviating a clash, ren- dering the blend coherent: reducing household energy consumption directly causes lower carbon emissions and the householder also, simultaneously, saves money. As we have seen, in our low carbon diet blend, two Goal roles are projected to the blend, as well as values for each of these roles. And in the grounding input, such Goals are incompatible. We suggest, therefore, that the low carbon diet blend is an instance, par excellence, of double scope blending: frame structure as well as frame elements are projected to the blend from all input spaces.
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And this being so, the low carbon diet blend illustrates the power of the human imagination: our ability to compress quite different and diffuse cause-effect chains into a clear and simple cause-effect relation. Another interesting facet of the conceptual integration network depicted in Figure 4 is that it is identified by a lexical form: low carbon diet. This form provides a linguistic anchor that remains connected to the blend, providing a conventional means of identifying and manipulating the blend.
And as the blend remains connected to the entire integration network, the form provides a short- cut back to other parts of the integration network. Indeed, we argue below that it is precisely this property of the formal blend that has facilitated the later devel- opment of a new low carbon diet blend integration network 2, discussed below. In addition to frame properties and elements being projected to the blend, word forms are also projected, which is precisely what makes the low carbon diet blend a formal blend. In particular, the form low carbon is projected from input 1, the grounding space.
And reflecting its importance in completing the Cause-effect structure, the Dieting frame provides the blend with the form diet. In order to include the segment at the end where we focus on the book and make specific plans we needed another hour.
Most of the actions are built around a new program entitled, Low Carbon Diet, designed to help you reduce your own carbon footprint. Ask questions: How many of you know your carbon footprint? Of those who do, how many have taken effective actions to lower? Hand out samples of book. It empowers households to be part of the global warming solution. It is based on his experience helping tens of thousands of people around the world measurably lower their environmental footprint and a successful pilot of this program in Portland, Oregon.
It enables individuals to reduce their carbon footprint and then help those in their social network, workplace and community do the same. Go over the 5 design principals graphically portrayed on the wall, 4. Develop a powerpoint or graphics presentation highlighting key points from the book Introduction.
This builds the case for taking action at the household level in America. Invite any participants who have been through program to share their experiences. Help Others Lower Their Carbon Footprints: Disseminate this program to others in your social network, neighborhood, civic organization, workplace or professional association.
For more information visit this link. Contribute: Contribute your time and money to local, national and international initiatives addressing global warming. Vote: Support local, state and national political candidates who are supporting policies to reduce global warming. Visualize Success: Visualize the human community successfully rising to the global warming challenge and taking the necessary actions.