Jane's Information Group. The Sterling Submachine Gun. Weapon March American Rifleman. The Bazooka. Army Concept Team in Vietnam. National Army Museum. Combat Aircraft Huey Cobra Gunships. New Vanguard Retrieved 16 January Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Communications Security; the David G. April 3, Retrieved 8 December Darrin 22 October Military Surplus Magazine. Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 19 February Small Arms Defense Journal.
Retrieved 27 July Boyne David 29 November Mauser Military Rifles of the World. Iola: Gun Digest Books. Small Arms Review. June The Browning Automatic Rifle. Vietnam Magazine. Retrieved 21 December A method of manufacturing solventless double-base powder by a dry-extrusion process had been developed in the late s by the British. This produced much thicker-webbed, and therefore longer-burning, grains but required enormously heavy presses to extrude or compact and force out the powder into the desired shape.
In American scientists split into two schools of thought on the relative merits of solvent and solventless double-base powders for rockets. Charles C. Lauritsen of the California Institute of Technology, and in vice chairman of one of the NDRC divisions, had been much impressed by British rocket work and strongly recommended dry-extruded powders. Though at that time no facilities existed in the United States for producing it, the Navy, with contracts let through NDRC to the California Institute of Technology, chose to focus efforts on obtaining thick-webbed solventless types.
The Ordnance Department, on the other hand, agreed with the views of Dr. Clarence N. Hickman advocated use of wet-extruded powder because of the shorter burning time and greater strength of the thin-webbed grains produced by this process. Quite apart from theoretical advantages, the urgency of quickly getting some usable type led Ordnance to center its program about solvent powder. Wet-extruded propellant was made by suspending the powder in a solvent that swelled the nitrocellulose to make a dough. The dough was forced through dies to form sticks, or grains, of powder from which evaporation then dried the solvent.
As satisfactory drying to produce flawless grains could be obtained only with thin-webbed powder, it was clearly necessary to use a number of small grains in each rocket in order to get a sufficiently heavy. That, in turn, complicated the problem of designing a trap to hold the series of powder sticks in the rocket motor, so that unburned portions of the grains would not be ejected by the high-pressure gases in front of the motor ends. Leslie A. Skinner of the Ordnance Department and Dr. The centrally perforated powder sticks were then hung on these wires. The wires had rivet heads to hold them in the scalloped ring.
Development of a new powder composition made into a single thick-webbed grain with a redesigned trap to hold it in place promised to be satisfactory. Early in , indeed, powder chemists found several new chemical compositions that offered advantages over the types originally employed. The new were slower burning, operated at lower pressures, and were therefore usable at a wider range of temperatures. Moreover, they could be produced by either the solvent or the solventless process.
Before the new compositions were available, the fast-burning propellants tended to develop such high pressures within the motor tubes as to make them unsafe to use at very high temperatures. Premature explosions close to the launcher endangered life and limb of the user and friendly troops in the vicinity. At low temperatures the rocket might fail to ignite or might burn only intermittently. In fact, frequent motor failures in the 4,5-inch rocket, standardized in September as the M8, obliged the Ordnance Department to discontinue mass production in June and restudy the design.
As reducing the amount of propellant presented the alternative of lowering the pay load proportionately or else of lessening the range, designers undertook to strengthen the motors without increasing their weight. The birth of the bazooka merits attention for several reasons. The weapon was an innovation. It combined great fire power with great simplicity. It met quite admirably a particular need. It was designed, produced, and placed in the hands of troops in record time.
And, perhaps because of its spectacular features, the tale of how it took shape has been confused by rival claimants for credit. The bazooka and the bazooka rocket came about in a rather devious fashion. Munroe as early as , when he discovered that shaping high explosive with a hollow cone at its forward end focused the explosive waves on one point and thus gave greater penetration per unit weight of the explosive.
The innovation embodied in the bazooka lay in the combination and adaptation of these well-known principles and basic inventions, which imagination and skill converted into a practical new weapon. The design was steadily improved upon as production of the first models went forward. Rockets, today part and parcel of the accepted equipment of national defense, were little considered in America between and ; they were superseded when rifled artillery offered greater accuracy of fire.
Though signal rockets were widely used during World War I, only one man endeavored to revive interest in rockets as a supplement to conventional artillery fire. That man, Dr. Robert H. Goddard, Professor of Physics at Clark University, was the true father of modern rocketry. In the fall of this gifted physicist offered the Ordnance Department the fruits of his investigations: a 1-inch, a 2-inch, and a 3-inch tube launcher, each 5. Goddard had to use a wick fuze in place of the electric firing mechanism, which he had not had time to perfect, and solid sticks of powder instead of nitroglycerine sticks with a single perforation.
Goddard died without receiving any acclaim for this pioneering work, though comparison of his rocket gun with the bazooka adopted twenty-four years later shows how closely the model approximated the later weapon. Only the circumstance that Dr. Hickman, then a young Ph. In the US Army created a one-man rocket unit by assigning Capt. Skinner to study the possible use of rockets. Skinner was handicapped by limited funds to expend on research and.
Hence, before the project made little headway.
The British, on the other hand, in the mid-thirties perceived the potential usefulness of rocket barrages against aircraft, where volume and power of fire might compensate for lack of accuracy. By the time of the London blitz the British had developed rockets that took some toll of the Nazi bombers and fighters. The Navy in September requested NDRC to undertake a jet-propulsion research program, and in December the Army, urged on by the British experience, made a similar request.
At the same time the Ordnance Department purchased British rockets and a projector for study. Thus, the American rocket program was born. The 2. It grew out of the search for a way to use a shaped-charge projectile that an individual soldier could fire from the shoulder. The first shaped-charge projectile to get serious consideration from the Army was the rifle grenade designed by Henri Mohaupt. The spigot launcher resting on the ground much like a mortar had the serious drawback of dispersing the fire widely.
Firing the grenade with blank cartridges from a rifle or from a.
The heavy recoil severely damaged the guns. Kessenich, already familiar with the details of the Mohaupt shaped charge, conceived the idea that the basic faults of the antitank grenade could be remedied by converting the grenade into a rocket. Using a rocket made with a hollow charge and launched from a shoulder projector that an individual soldier could carry and fire would give the destructive effect of the grenade but would eliminate both the high-angle trajectory and the breakage of the rifle stock that made the M10 antitank grenade unsatisfactory.
Early in August Kessenich, armed with sketches embodying his idea, presented his proposal to Col. Wiley T. Moore, chief of the engineering group of the Small Arms Division. The sketches and a copy of the Westfaelisch Patent of , which covered the hollow charge phases of the plan, Kessenich accordingly turned over to Major Skinner. Edward G. Uhl, were collaborating with Navy experts and a group of civilian scientists under Dr. Hickman of NDRC. Some months later Major Skinner completed a first conversion of the M10 grenade by adding a rocket element to the base of the grenade.
About the same time Lieutenant Uhl completed a tube launcher. The Bazooka. The original 2. The handle contained dry batteries to supply energy electrically to ignite the rocket motor. In April Colonel Moore, then at Frankford Arsenal, produced a factory-made inch launcher and factory-made parts for the converted grenade. He improvised a sight by using a piece of nail found on the ground.
The effectiveness of the rocket with dummy heads fired at a moving tank impressed the onlookers. A few days later a formal demonstration was held at Camp Sims, D. British observers now opened negotiation for samples and Russian military staff members present at this trial immediately requested that they be supplied with some. General Marshall at once issued verbal orders that 5, launchers and 25, antitank and 5, practice rockets be procured. The E. Budd Company made the rockets.
On 30 June the Ordnance Committee formally standardized the 2. The bazooka is thus an example of a cooperatively developed weapon in which the Army, Navy, and civilian agencies all played a part. It provided a powerful addition to infantry armament. The projected rockets could penetrate three inches of homogeneous steel armor plate at an angle of impact up to 30 degrees from normal, and retain full penetrative power up to their maximum range of yards. Fired against masonry, girders, railroad tracks, or heavy timber, as well as against armor plate, they were highly destructive.
While improvements upon both rocket and launcher were admittedly necessary, the first models were satisfactory enough to warrant obsoletion of the original antitank grenade from which the rocket had derived. Orders for , rockets were placed in June and in July for 75, launchers to be completed by the end of the year. Modifications of design of rocket fins and launcher sights were incorporated into the production units as these orders were filled.
More drastic changes soon became necessary. Misfires obtained with the original type of ignition squib led first to substitution of a new type, but by May reports of serious malfunctions had become so frequent that the services were instructed to suspend use of the rocket pending investigation. The Ordnance Technical Committee recommended a new design of rocket motor body, using a different steel in the stabilizer tube and employing a new type of powder trap and fuze-base cover.
Still more important as a safety measure was reduction of the propellant. Extensive tests showed that powder sticks cut from 23 inches to With these changes approved, the standard bazooka rocket was designated the M6A1, the practice rocket the M7A1. Teams equipped with the new parts, materials, tools, and repair kits to make the modifications of both rockets and launchers were sent to the active theatres in July Substitution of copper cones for steel resulted from discovery that copper cones obtained about 30 percent greater armor penetration than the steel cones of identical design.
Because rockets were relatively little known weapons, improvements often hinged upon fresh basic research. Hence, at the request of the Ordnance. Department, the Bureau of Standards in the summer and fall of conducted a number of wind-tunnel tests of fin assemblies, and Picatinny Arsenal investigated ignition characteristics calculated to give the most dependable functioning of the 2. Fuzes also required careful study.
Experiments to develop a whole series of special bazooka rockets—smoke, incendiary, chemical, and others—brought about standardization of the M10, a smoke rocket, but no others. Joint efforts of the Atlas Powder, DuPont, Hercules, and American Cyanamid Companies improved rocket powders, while concerns assigned contracts to develop experimental components or assemblies, particularly fuzes, added to the knowledge of what new features were desirable or attainable by mass-production methods.
Throughout the war the scientists of NDRC and the universities with which they contracted were amassing data on explosives that were invaluable in all phases of the rocket program. The success of the 2. The resulting T59 unhappily proved in tests to be dangerous to the user and quickly became a bone of contention between scientists of NDRC and the Ordnance Department. The first experimental model, the T80, was charged with 1.
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Though it obtained longer range and higher velocity than the standard bazooka rocket, it fell short of that achieved by the T59 with its eight pounds of pentolite. Yet the cyclotol in the T80 would, research men believed, ensure penetration of 8-inch homogeneous armor plate. Static, flight, and penetration tests in March supplied data on which to base a revised design, but V-J Day arrived before this was proved.
Once the projectile had reached its target, the final job was to do the greatest possible damage. The rate of speed at which the projectile was traveling at the moment of burst was of course important, but the ultimate result was determined by the quality of the ammunition itself. Some German ammunition was of better quality than American because it was more perfectly fabricated. But it had to have more exacting machining and more careful. To increase fire power by otherwise improving the effectiveness of the projectile was a continuing problem for the Ordnance Department. Experts in terminal ballistics attempted to solve it in several ways.
One was to improve the fuze. Another was to use a more powerful explosive in the warhead or to use an old explosive in a new way, applying the shaped-charge principle. And with specific targets in mind, designers devised special types of projectiles having the mass, size, and mechanical strength required to defeat different kinds of enemy defenses. Extensive work in the s and s had produced several families of fuzes adapted to use in any caliber artillery shell. Time fuzes did not require impact but were set by turning a time ring before firing. As the shell left the muzzle, a time element, either a clockwork mechanism or a slow powder train, began to work, and the fuze functioned at the moment it had been set for.
Time fuzes were valuable for fragmentation effect, for smoke or illuminating shells, and especially for antiaircraft fire. Impact fuzes, used against targets of varying degrees of resistance, were of several types: supersensitive, superquick, nondelay, delay, or a combination of these. Supersensitive action was necessary against insubstantial targets such as airplane fabric. Against more solid targets, superquick fuzes were used when penetration was not desired, nondelay for detonation at the moment of penetration, and delay—usually of.
Fuzes need not be single purpose, though many were. Selective-type fuzes could be adjusted in the field for more than one kind of action, such as superquick and delay, or time and superquick. For example, the M48 fuze, used with the mm. In all fuzes, mechanical safeguards restrained the firing pin until the right moment for detonation arrived. When the gun fired, the sudden and violent forces arising from acceleration removed one set of safeguarding devices. In flight the centrifugal force of the shell as it rotated about its longitudinal axis removed the last set of safeguards and the fuze was armed, that is, free to function.
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Engineers strove with some success to adapt the fuzes developed before to the tactical situations of World War II. The chief problem, determining the most effective delay times, was difficult to solve because the resistance of targets varied greatly. The M67 mechanical time fuze could be set for a delay of 75 seconds, but as it depended on the turning of gears in flight and had no provision for detonating on impact it was unsatisfactory for neutralization. But the maximum range of the M54 was only 25 seconds. The problem of how to triple that range was not fully solved when the war ended.
The most important point-detonating fuze developed during the war was a radical departure from other types, as it had a steel nose that adapted high-explosive ammunition to concrete-piercing uses. Since designers had been trying to find a way to destroy fortifications made of concrete reinforced with steel bars, such as the Siegfried Line. Against such targets, standard high-explosive shells would throw the fuze and become duds. Armor-piercing ammunition, based-fuzed, though better, lacked enough power to remove earth or sandbags placed in front of the concrete, to blow the reinforcing bars and debris from the impact area, or to cause large enough craters to make successive hits effective.
The best solution was a completely new high-explosive shell with a base-detonating fuze. But that meant a new round for each weapon, further complicating the already complicated ammunition situation, and long delay in getting ammunition to troops. A more expedient answer was a steel nose fuze that could be attached to high-explosive rounds already in the field.
George G. Eddy began the development at Aberdeen in the summer of Tests against prototypes of West Wall fortifications showed the most practical design to be a fuze body made of molybdenum steel, heat treated for greater strength, with the delay assembly of the M48 and M51 fuzes and a modified booster. Developed in a matter of weeks, the steel nose fuze, standardized as the M78, was rushed to General Devers in Africa and successfully tried out at Cassino.
Later it helped to breach the Siegfried Line and the log-and-earth bunkers encountered in the Pacific. The concrete-piercing fuze and the long-delay superquick time fuze were examples of developments to meet new tactical conditions and new targets. It was used only by the U. Marine Corps. Japan produced a self-propelled gun called the Type 60 , which carried two side by side. Some Pakistani Ms have a dual mounting. Three Panagopoulos coastal patrol boats class of the Hellenic Coast Guard and the Hellenic Navy in service of was armed with two sextuples M The term "fixed" means that the projectile and the cartridge case are crimped together.
This ensures correct alignment of the projectile and the cartridge case. It also permits faster loading because the projectile and the cartridge case are loaded as one unit. The rear end of the cartridge case is perforated, to allow the propellant gas to escape through the vented breech, thus neutralizing recoil.
Most projectiles except HEAT used are pre-engraved, that is, the rotating bands are cut to engage the rifled bore. The original U. The ammunition for the M8C spotting rifle is not. Although the spotting rifle could conceivably be used in an antipersonnel role, historic U. However, this restriction is believed to be the source of a long-standing misconception that the laws of war restrict the use of.
Intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon, it could also be employed in an antipersonnel role with the use of an antipersonnel-tracer flechette round. Sergeant Reckless, a decorated war horse serving with a US Marine Corps recoilless rifle platoon in the Korean War, stands beside a 75mm recoilless rifle The M20 recoilless rifle is a U.
It could be fired from an MA1. Although the weapon proved ineffective against the T tank during the Korean War and most other tanks, it was used primarily as a close infantry support weapon to engage all types of targets including infantry and lightly armored vehicles.
The M20 proved useful against pillboxes and other types of field fortifications. Its poor armor penetration by the HEAT round was because of it being a spin-stabilized. An M40 recoilless rifle on its M79 "wheelbarrow" tripod. Diagram of the operation of a recoilless rifle using a vented case. A recoilless rifle, recoilless launcher or recoilless gun, sometimes abbreviated "RR" or "RCL" for ReCoilLess  is a type of lightweight artillery system or man-portable launcher that is designed to eject some form of countermass such as propellant gas from the rear of the weapon at the moment of firing, creating forward thrust that counteracts most of the weapon's recoil.
This allows for the elimination of much of the heavy and bulky recoil-counteracting equipment of a conventional cannon as well as a thinner-walled barrel, and thus the launch of a relatively large projectile from a platform that would not be capable of handling the weight or recoil of a conventional gun of the same size. Technically, only devices that use spin-stabilized projectiles fired from a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles, while smoothbore variants which can be fin-stabilized or unstabilized are reco.
Recoilless rifles are capable of firing artillery-type shells at reduced velocities comparable to those of standard cannon, but with greater accuracy than anti-tank weapons that used unguided rockets, and almost entirely without recoil. The M18 was a breech-loaded, single-shot, man-portable, crew-served weapon. It could be used in both anti-tank and anti-personnel roles. The weapon could be both shoulder fired or fired from a prone position. The T3 front grip doubled as an adjustable monopod and the two-piece padded T3 shoulder cradle could swing down and to the rear as a bipod for the gunner.
The most stable firing position was from the tripod developed for the water-cooled Browning M machine gun. Introduced in , it was one of the many recoilless rifle designs of that era. While similar weapons have generally disappeared from service, the Carl Gustaf is still being made and remains in widespread use today.
The Carl Gustaf is a lightweight, low-cost weapon that uses a wide range of ammunition, which makes it extremely flexible and suitable for a wide variety of roles. The weapon's name is frequently shortened. In Australia, it is. The ballistics of the spotting rifle are matched to those of the artillery piece, so that if a shot from the spotting rifle lands on the target, it may be assumed that the main weapon will also do so. Anti-tank recoilless rifles Spotting rifles were most commonly used with recoilless rifles as anti-tank artillery, from the s to the s.
These weapons are used for direct fire with line-of-sight visibility to the target. As recoilless rifles have a relatively low muzzle velocity and thus a high trajectory, accurate ranging is important An optical sight can measure the bearing to a target, but not easily or accurately measure the range. Optical rangefinders were too large for lightweight portable artillery, and the later development of laser rangefinders would in turn make spotting rifles obsolete.
It mounts two M40 mm recoilless rifles as its main armament. They were delivered in A second series of prototypes was built with 4 recoilless rifles, but adoption of the American M40 recoilless rifle forced the reversion to two weapons. The Type 60 was designed for ambush attacks against enemy tanks, and mounting four weapons gave the vehicle a rather high-profile. A third series of three heavier prototypes was built by Komatsu as SS4, with a more powerful engine, a new transmission and clutch and a two-speed auxiliary transmission.
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They were accepted into service in September. In , Indonesia placed an order for 28 Scout vehicles, as well as 22 Ranger armoured personnel carriers. Details of this vehicle, which is no longer manufactured or marketed are given in the armoured personnel carriers wheeled section. By early , a total of Scout 4 x 4 vehicles had been built by Cadillac Gage. There has been no recent production of the Scout, although marketing continues.
Description The welded hull of the Scout is made of special hardness Cadloy armour plate which will defeat at a minimum 7. The front, sides a. It could also be employed in an anti-personnel role with the use of the M antipersonnel round. It was designed to be fired primarily from the ground using the bipod and monopod, but could also be fired from the shoulder using the folded bipod as a shoulder rest and the monopod as a front grip.
The weapon was air-cooled and breech-loaded, and fired fixed ammunition. It is a direct fire weapon employing stadia lines to allow simple range finding, based on a typical tank target bridging the lines once in range. Nearly all United States-allied forces were armed with U. The Australian and New Zealand forces employed the 7. In addition, some. This museum is dedicated to the struggle for the independence of the Western Sahara people. The Equipment of the Singapore Army can be subdivided into: infantry weapons, vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicle UAV and radars to borders.
More on order to replace M APC. The L6 Wombat version was greatly lightened through the use of magnesium alloys. The Wombat was used by mobile units such as paratroopers and marines. It was envisioned that Wombat would be used in 'shoot and scoot' attacks mounted. It mounted six mm manually loaded M40 recoilless rifles as its main armament, which could be fired in rapid succession against single targets to guarantee a kill. Although the actual caliber of the main guns was mm it was designated mm to prevent confusion with the ammunition for the mm M27 recoilless rifle, which the M40 replaced.
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It was produced in limited numbers for the U. Marines after the U. Army cancelled the project. The Marines consistently reported excellent results when they used the Ontos for direct fire support against infantry in numerous battles and operations during the Vietnam War. The American stock of Ontos was largely expended towards the end of the conflict and the Ontos was removed from service in Development The Ontos Greek for "thing" project was created to be an air transportable tank destroyer capable of being.
The Jakkals can be deployed by land, lifted by helicopter, air dropped and delivered via aircraft. Weapons mounted on the Jakkals include the mm M40 recoilless rifle, M2 Browning heavy machine gun, various general purpose machine guns as well as acting as a tractor for the Valkiri-5 multiple rocket launcher or anti-aircraft guns such as the ZU It can also be deployed with a small trailer and used as a logistical support vehicle, especially for the mm mortars as with airborne artillery. It was manufactured by the Cadillac Division of General Motors in the early s. The M was designed to be fast and stealthy for use in the reconnaissance role.
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Like the larger M, it was amphibious and could be deployed by parachute. However, unlike the M which became one of the most successful armoured vehicles, it quickly proved unsuited to use in the Vietnam War, and was replaced in the reconnaissance role by the M Sheridan light tank. By , it had been branded a failure and retired from the US Army, but some were released as surplus and continue to be used by police departments.
Description The M was a lightweight, low-silhouette vehicle, designed to complement the M in command and reconnaissance roles. It looked like a sleeker, lower M Examples of various small-arms flechettes Scale in inches A flechette fleh-SHET is a pointed steel projectile with a vaned tail for stable flight. They have been used as ballistic weapons since World War I.
Delivery systems and methods of launching flechettes vary, from a single shot, to thousands in a single explosive round. The use of flechettes as antipersonnel weapons has been controversial, and is considered by some to be a human rights violation. Top: early forged steel design; Bottom: later lathe-turned steel design Later the U. Land Rover is a British brand of four-wheel drive cars, that exclusively offers premium and luxury sport utility vehicles, owned by multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since Over time, it grew into its own brand, and for a while also a company , encompassing a consistently growing range of four-wheel drive, off-road capable models.
Starting with the much more upmarket Range Rover, and subsequent introductions of the mid-range Discovery and entry-level Freelander line, in and The Battle of Longewala 4—7 December was one of the first major engagements in the western sector during the Indo-Pakistani War of , fought between assaulting Pakistani forces and Indian defenders at the Indian border post of Longewala, in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan state in India.
The battle was fought between Indian soldiers accompanied by 4 Hunter fighter aircraft and Pakistani soldiers accompanied by tanks. A Company reinforced of the Indian Army's 23rd Battalion, Punjab Regiment, commanded by Major Kuldip Singh Chandpuri, was left with the choice of either attempting to hold out until reinforced, or fleeing on foot from a mechanised infantry Pakistani force.
He was also fortunate in that an Indian Air Force forward air controller was able to secure and direct aircraft in support. Davy Crockett was a recoilless gun on a tripod for firing the M atomic round The M or M Davy Crockett Weapon System was the tactical nuclear recoilless gun smoothbore for firing the M nuclear projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. It was one of the smallest nuclear weapon systems ever built, with a yield between 10 and 20 tons TNT equivalent 40—80 gigajoules. It is named after American folk hero, soldier, and congressman Davy Crockett.
The unusually small size of the warhead is apparent. The Davy Crockett recoilless spigot gun was developed in the late s for use against Soviet and North Korean armor and troops in case war broke out in Europe or the Korean peninsula. During alerts to the Inner German border in the F. Two 95 S recoilless rifles and related equipment Finnish conscripts in a training exercise, marching with a heavy recoilless rifle. Image from The 95 S is a heavy recoilless anti-tank weapon used by the Finnish Army. The weapon was developed in and it was given a new wheel-equipped carriage in M3 submachine gun Submachine gun.
M50 Reising submachine gun Submachine gun. United Defense M42 Submachine gun. Landsverk L, was a Swedish tank developed in It was developed by AB Landsverk as a light tank which included several advanced design features such as torsion bar suspension, periscopes rather than view slits and all-welded construction. Similar to the regular L with a 20 mm madsen in the turret but with a raised idler-wheel.
Not accepted for service.