The fate of literary coinages, unlike colloquial ones, mainly depends on the number of rival synonyms already existing in the vocabulary of the language. It also depends on the shade of meaning the new coinage may convey to the mind of the reader. If a new word is approved of by native speakers and becomes widely used, it ceases to be a new word and becomes part and parcel of the general vocabulary in spite of the objections of men-of-letters and other lawgivers of the language, whoever they may be.
Other literary neologisms leave traces in the vocabulary because they are fixed in the literature of their time. This is not the case with colloquial coinages.
Most of the literary-bookish coinages are built by means of affixation and word compounding. This is but natural; new words built in this manner will be immediately perceived because of their unexpectedness. Unexpectedness in the use of words is the natural device of those writers who seek to achieve the sensational. It is interesting to note in passing that conversion, which has become one of the most productive word-building devices of the English language and which is more and more widely used to form new words in all parts of speech, is less effective in producing the sensational effect sought by literary coinage than is the case with other means of word-building.
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Conversion has become organic in the English language. Conversion, derivation and change of meaning are mostly used to coin new terms in which new meanings are imposed on old words. Among coinages of this kind the word accessories may be mentioned. It has now become an important word in the vocabulary of feminine fashion. It means gloves, shoes and handbag, though jewellery and other ornaments are sometimes included.
Mary Reifer's "Dictionary of New Words" notes a verb to accessorize meaning 'to provide with dress accessories, such as handbag, gloves, shoes, etc. The new meaning co-exists with the old ones. In other words, new meanings imposed on old "words form one system in which old and new meanings are ranged in a dictionary according to their rate of frequency or to some other underlying principle.
But there are cases when new meanings imposed on old words drive out old meanings. In this case we register a gradual change in "the meaning of the word which may not incorporate the old one.
The city was founded in the 6th cent. There is a 16th-century fort built by Akbar. The Hazratbal mosque has a putative hair of Muhammad. Extensive Buddhist ruins are also near the city. In , Srinagar became the summer capital of the Indian sector of the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Barbarisms and Foreignisms in English Language
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In order to depict local conditions of life,- concrete facts and events, customs and habits, special carets taken to introduce into the passage such language elements as will reflect the environment. In this respect a most conspicuous role is played by the language chosen. In "Vanity Fair" Thackeray takes the reader to a small German town where a boy with a remarkable appetite is made the focus of attention. The German words are italicized to show their alien nature and at the same time their stylistic function in the passage. These words have not become facts of the English language and need special decoding to be understood by the rank and file English-speaking reader.
In this connection mention might be made of a stylistic device often used by writers whose knowledge of the language and customs of the country they depict bursts out from the texture of the narrative, they. However, one suspects that the words are not intended to be understood exactly.
All that is required of the reader is that he should be aware that the words used are foreign and mean something, in the above case connected with food. The context therefore leads the reader to understand that schinken, braien and kartoffeln are words denoting some kind of food, but exactly what kind he will learn when he travels in Germany. The significance of such units, however, is not communicative — the author does not wish them to convey any clear-cut idea — but to serve in making the main idea stand out more conspicuously.
An example which is even more characteristic of the use of the local colour function of foreign words is the following stanza from Byron's "Don Juan":. The poet himself calls the foreign words he has used 'slip-slop', i. Another function of barbarisms and foreign words is to build up the stylistic device of non-personal direct speech or represented speech see p. The use of a word, or a phrase, or a sentence in the reported speech of a local inhabitant helps to reproduce his actual words, manner of speech and the environment as well.
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Thus in James Aldridge's "The Sea -Eagle" — "And the Cretans were very willing to feed and hide the Inglisi"—, the last word is intended to reproduce the actual speech of the local people by introducing a word actually spt ken by them, a word which is very easily understood because of the root. Generally such words are first introduced in the direct speech of a character and then appear in the author's narrative as an element of reported speech.
Barbarisms and foreign words are used in various styles of language, but are most often to be found in the style of belles-lettres and the publi-cistic style. In the belles-lettres style, however, foreignisms are sometimes used not only as separate units incorporated in the English narrative. The author makes his character actually speak a foreign language, by putting a string of foreign words into his mouth, words which to many readers may be quite unfamiliar.
These phrases or whole sentences are sometimes translated by the writer in a foot-note or by explaining the foreign utterance in English in the text. But this is seldom done. No translation is given, no interpretation. But something else must be pointed out here. Foreign words and phrases may sometimes be used to exalt the expression of the idea, to elevate the language. This is in some respect akin to the function of elevation mentioned in the chapter on archaisms.
Words which we do not quite understand sometimes have a peculiar charm. They realized that jettisoning their parents' foreignism had not made them members of the society they had believed they belonged to. But is this particular meme accurate? To assess the claim of a recent surge in anti- foreignism in official propaganda, I looked at the frequency of Many of them highlight graphic expressions of militarism, nationalism, racism, and anti- foreignism.
Because the visual resources tapped for In Ireland, the word might enjoy a shady existence as a legal foreignism , and, presumably, that is why it never occurred in native literature. Foreignism [online]. English words that begin with f. English words that begin with fo. English words that begin with for. Load a random word. Discover all that is hidden in the words on.