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Besides, the analysis of experimental data performed in Oklahoma City in showed the relationships between contaminant residence time in urban street canyons, urban boundary layer winds and urban topography. An experimental study [ 17 ] shows that vegetation improves air quality in urban canyons by particle removal.

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This purification effect is correlated with the canopy density. Baik et al. In this paper, we present an experimental approach to determining the hygrothermal impact of green roofs and green walls on the built environment in street canyons. The study was conducted on a reduced-scale model similar to a typical urban scene characterized by five rows of street canyons.

The main objective was to assess the impact of vegetated building envelopes through relative comparisons with a reference street without vegetation and in real climatic conditions. The study also aimed to provide a database of experimental measurements; this will allow further comparisons with numerical models and their experimental validation. It consists of five rows of concrete empty tanks, which stand for reduced-scale buildings.

Each row is made up of three tanks, which form a block 5 m long, 1. The aspect ratio defined as the height to width of the street canyons is equal to 1. The canyon facades, oriented to east and west, and the roofs are painted in white. Two adjacent reduced-scale buildings index 4 and 5 on the east side of the experimental platform have green roofs composed mainly of sedum. A green wall system was set up on the west facade of building 2. The green wall growing medium consists of Chilean sphagnum 15 cm thick and is fixed on a metal grid that forms a weakly ventilated air layer of 5 cm.

There are six different species of vegetation planted on the green wall.

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This latter is watered twice a day by an automatic drip watering system. One row of concrete tanks and one street canyon were kept as a reference for further comparisons. The experiment aimed to assess the impact of the revegetated envelopes on diurnal and seasonal variations in indoor and outdoor environments. Some of these properties have an important effect on the extent to which the green wall and the green roofs affect the air temperature and humidity within the canyon.

Experimental monitoring of a green wall. Thermal and hydric variations are monitored at different depths and heights in the growing medium and at different heights in the air layer behind the green wall, and thus, the thermal and hydrological behaviors of the green wall are assessed and the drip is optimized. The assessment of the impact of green roofs on building energy performance through measurements and comparisons of the air temperatures inside reduced-scale buildings with different vegetated and paint coatings.

The study of the impact of green walls and green roofs on the microclimate within typical street canyons. In this paper, we focus on the last point and the study of the impact of vegetated roofs and facades on the air temperature, air humidity and on the radiative trapping within the reduced-scale street canyons. This experimental bench is designed in order to study the different heat transfer fluxes through the canyon surfaces: the shortwave radiation, the longwave radiation, the sensible and the latent convective heat transfer and the conducted heat flux. The order of magnitudes of the reduced-scale mock-up and its similarity to a real-scale street have been studied to design the mock-up first.

It is important here to note that beyond the absolute results for green walls or green roofs, the simultaneous measurements allow us to highlight the temperature and flux variations, and the potential benefits, of different configurations. Considering all the heat fluxes and the surface temperatures of the buildings, we have compared the experimental bench with a real-scale building and found very similar values, through dynamic simulations TRNSYS [ 14 ]. Indeed, solar shortwave irradiance is the main energy flux that influences the surface temperatures in summer.

The absorbed solar radiation depends only on the orientation, the radiative properties of materials and on the aspect ratio, which determines the solar masks. All these parameters are conserved on the reduced scale. The longwave radiation fluxes depend not only on the geometric aspect but also on the surface temperatures, and these two factors are almost the same on the reduced and the real scales.

In addition, this is due to a similar convective heat transfer coefficients and air temperatures. Considering the canyon microclimate, the convective heat transfer leads to increase in the air temperature within the canyon. So, in our experiment, the model has direct similarities to a real-scale street with skimming flows. This convective heat flux is linked to the sensible heat transferred by the canyon surfaces S i m 2 to the air. Considering a scale reduced by a factor n and similar wind magnitudes, the airflow from the street canyon to the canopy is approximately reduced by a factor n 2 as the surface is reduced by n 2.

Simultaneously, the convective heat transfer is reduced by a factor n 2 due to the reduced heat exchange surface. So the temperatures within the canyon should be in the same order as in the real scale one. The experimental instrumentation work on ClimaBat has been designed for three main objectives on various scales. First, special envelope coating properties and behavior were studied.

Second, we studied the impact of these envelope coatings on the energy performance of buildings, and finally their effects on urban microclimate at local level were studied. The sensors installed on ClimaBat provide A weather station that is installed on the site permits the acquisition of meteorological data, including air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, short- and longwave horizontal irradiance and rainfall.

Annual and daily monitoring of temperature variations inside the building blocks and on their external and internal surfaces at different locations. This allows the assessment of the impact of various external coating techniques paint cool, green roofs, green walls on the thermal behavior of the reduced-scale buildings. These measurements can be used for experimental validation of real building models. Monitoring of hydric and thermal behaviors of the vegetated components green roofs and facades. This allows a better understanding of the physics of both heat and moisture transfer through their special materials.

Diurnal and seasonal monitoring of the microclimatic variations in temperature, humidity and radiation trapping within street canyons at local level. In this article, we focus on this part of the experimental work. There are three street canyons that were instrumented with several sensors.

Location of sensors on ClimaBat, measuring the microclimate impact of vegetated building envelopes. The thermocouples used in this study were type K chromel—alumel with an accuracy of about 0. Some sensor tuning was performed during the set up to reduce errors. At first, the pyranometer and pyrgeometer mounts should not be too large. In fact, the orientation of the facades implies that the mount shadow will cover the various sensors located at the middle of the facades. Second, the hygrometers CS should be protected against sunlight and rain.

Indeed, shelters marketed for these types of sensors are very large to be placed in the streets. They may alter the airflow and produce also an important shadow. These shelters protect the sensors from rain and solar radiation at least within the limits of exposure angles in the street. The analyzed measurements were performed during August Main meteorological data recorded at the experimental site and the local wind rise on ClimaBat bench.

Hence, the regional wind intensity is reduced and its direction is modified. Therefore, the main direction of airflow over ClimaBat is from the south. The airflow is less channeled in city canyons than in a separate urban scene as ClimaBat. The reduced confinement of the street canyons plays an important role in the measured differences in temperature and relative humidity within the three studied streets.

Trend of global warming Trends in atmospheric concentrations and anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide Much of the growth in emissions in developing countries results from the provision of basic human needs for growing populations, while emissions in industrialized countries contribute to growth in a standard of living that is already far above that of the average person worldwide.

Carbon dioxide emissions of industrialized nations 7. Significant loss from the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and subsequent sea-level rise. Increase of death and illness from the spread of infectious and diarrhoeal diseases and from extreme heat. Mechanisms of climate change affecting health Recent unprecedented flooding of Lagos state, Abakiliki, Ibadan and the flooding of agricultural lands in Northern Nigeria Fig. A flooded farmland in Gudinchin village in Jigawa state Northern Nigeria Develop approach and practices for protecting and improving existing construction against effects of climate change.

Adopt clean and renewable energy usage. Reduce the use of natural resources and emphasize the reuse and recyclingof industrial by-products. Anthropogenic activities are largely responsible for the problem of climate change. One of the most noticeable signs of climate change is rising global temperature. Man is the ultimate recipient of the adverse effects of climate change , hence the need to initiate necessary adjustment measures.

Most of the recent sporadic outbreak of infectious diseases can be attributed to climate change indicators such as rising temperatures and increased humidity. Cutting down on emission of green house gases is a necessary but inadequate measure for climate change mitigation because some of the spin off effects of climate change cannot be ameliorated by emission reduction. Besides there is need for social and behavioural adjustments for improved adaptation. The recent outbreak. Abraham, K. Jefferies and R. Alisauskas, The dynamics of landscape change and snow geese in mid-continent North America.

Global Change Biol. Cecchi and A. Tilche, Emission of greenhouse gases from anaerobic digestion processes: Comparison with other MSW treatments. Bai, L. Morton and Q. Liu, Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: A review. Global Health, Vol.

China's coal-burning in significant decline, figures show. Guardian News and Media Limited. Cross, E. Hyams, The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia. Health Perspect. Becker, G. Hall and K. Moodie, Does ambient temperature affect foodborne disease?

Epidemiology, Greenhouse gases, climate change and energy. Climate Change Indicators in the United States. Ebi, K. Chan, A. Milne and U. Confalonieri, Infectious and Respiratory Diseases. Mills Eds. Epstein, P. The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases: Comment. Ecology, 9: Diaz, S. Elias, G.

Grabherr, N. Graham and W. Martens, Biological and physical signs of climate change: Focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Gambrell, J. Flooding in Nigeria worsens food shortage. Gilpin, A. Dictionary of Energy Technology. Butterworth Scientific, London, UK.

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Gould, E. Higgs, Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. What really causes climate change? Executive Intell.

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Masson, A. Baklanov, G. Pigeon and L. Gimeno, Advances in urban climate modeling. Annals New York Acad. Brooks, Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease. B, Vol. Summary for Policymakers. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani and S. Kadner et al. Jacups, S. Whelan, P. Markey, S. Cleland, G. Williamson and B. Currie, Health, Coburn, Trees for carbon sequestration.

Leggett, J. China's greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation policies. Lindgren, E. Gustafson, Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change. Lancet, Jaenson, Martin, V. Chevalier, P. Ceccato, A. Anyamba and L. The impact of climate change on the epidemiology and control of rift valley fever. Canziani, N. Leary, D. Dokken and C.

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White, McMichael, T. Global climate change: Does warming warrant a health warning? Medlock, J. Snow and S. Leach, Potential transmission of West Nile virus in the British Isles: An ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors. Bartoszcze and A. Bielawska-Drozd, Impact of climate change on infectious diseases. Polish J.

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Chapter 3, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp: Ng, S. Basta and B. Cowling, Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, to Eurosurveillance, Vol. Nordell, B. Chapter 4, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp: O'Sullivan, A. Sheffrin, Economics: Principles in Action. That appeared to be tongue-in-cheek, too. When he showed the photo during his presentation, the audience laughed. Duluth does have a surf season. Surfers head out into the lake in temperatures as low as minus 15 Fahrenheit, or minus 26 Celsius.

Skarp said he liked the idea of more people coming to Duluth. He said it would mean more jobs. But not everyone agrees with Dr. Because it favors those who are financially able to move, it selects for the affluent and, he acknowledged, raises questions of gentrification. After the presentation, Karen Diver, a faculty fellow at the College of Saint Scholastica who served as special assistant to the president for Native American affairs during the Obama administration, cautioned that the city had an uneven track record when it comes to embracing diversity.

Mayor Larson seemed to acknowledge that.

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Ultimately, if Duluth decides to invest in attracting climate migrants, whether voluntary or displaced, the city may face competition. At least one other Great Lakes city, Buffalo, miles away on the eastern tip of Lake Erie, also has winter cold, and the same geographic blessings as Duluth.

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Buffalo is predicted to have fresh water even as the climate warms, and its summers will remain relatively cool. Vermette, a professor of geography at Buffalo State. But Buffalo has already received what could be described as a wave of climate migrants, after Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico in the autumn of They came partly because Buffalo has an established Puerto Rican population, which meant that many prospective migrants had friends and relatives in the city.

At the same time, Buffalo had advertised itself on Puerto Rican television in search of Spanish language teachers.